How Knowledge Graphs Enhance Generative AI in Biopharma?

Generative AI, powered by large language models like GPT-3, has made remarkable strides in natural language understanding and generation. These models have been harnessed in various applications within the Biopharma sector, including drug discovery, medical text analysis, and clinical trials. However, despite the immense potential of Gen AI models, they pose various challenges, including the risk of generating incorrect or misleading information (hallucinations), significant training and scaling costs, the intricacy of fine-tuning them for specific tasks, and the challenges of maintaining data consistency across diverse domains.

To maximize the power of generative AI in the Biopharma domain, a pressing need arises for integrating knowledge graphs. They offer a structured and interconnected representation of domain-specific knowledge, providing a robust solution to contextualize, verify, and enhance AI-generated content. 

This blog explores the potential of Gen AI in Biopharma and how knowledge graphs can enhance the use of Gen AI in this sector. 

What is Generative AI? 

Generative AI is a subset of artificial intelligence focusing on autonomously creating content, such as text, images, or music. At its core, it leverages deep learning models, like Large Language Models (LLMs), to understand and mimic patterns in data, allowing it to generate human-like content.

Generative AI Tasks

For example, ChatGPT, a sophisticated language model, is designed to understand and generate human-like text. It can engage in natural conversations, answer questions, and provide valuable information.

Moreover, Large Language Models (LLMs) extend their capabilities beyond text generation. They are versatile and valuable in various applications, including natural language processing (NLP), translation, summarization, and image generation. 

Potential of Generative AI in Biopharma 

Generative AI has brought many changes in the Biopharma field. It has solved problems and changed how we discover drugs and provide healthcare. 

Gen AI in Biopharma

Let’s explore how Gen AI is revolutionizing the Biopharma sector.

1. Generating Optimized Drug Compounds

Generative AI expedites drug discovery by autonomously generating optimized drug compounds. These AI systems can propose novel compounds with potential therapeutic benefits by analyzing vast datasets and understanding molecular structures. This accelerates drug development and provides new avenues for precisely targeting complex diseases.

For example, AI tools such as DeepTox, ORGANIC, DeepChem, and Chemputer are helping researchers across various aspects of drug discovery and production. 

2. Precision Medicine

One of the most transformative applications of Generative AI in Biopharma is in precision medicine. These AI models can analyze individual patient data, genomics, and treatment histories to tailor personalized treatment plans. This level of customization enhances treatment efficacy and minimizes adverse effects, marking a significant advancement in patient care.

3. 3D Molecular Structure Predictions

Generative AI excels in predicting complex 3D molecular structures. This capability is invaluable for understanding the behavior of drugs at a molecular level. By providing accurate structural insights, AI aids researchers in optimizing drug candidates, enhancing their therapeutic potential, and minimizing potential side effects through precise molecular design. 

4. Synthetic Genomic Data Generation for Research

Generative AI can create synthetic genomic data in genomics, aiding researchers in hypothesis testing and model validation. This approach accelerates the pace of genetic research and allows for exploring diverse scenarios, ultimately driving innovation in Biopharma research.

Limitations of LLMs that Hinder the Application of GAI in BioPharma

While Large Language Models (LLMs) like GPT-3 have opened new frontiers in AI, their integration into the BioPharma industry comes with several substantial limitations, which include:

  • Hallucinations: One prominent limitation of LLMs is their susceptibility to generating false or hallucinatory information. In BioPharma, where precision and accuracy are paramount, these models’ potential for producing incorrect data poses significant challenges, such as resource wastage and false clinical trial outcomes. Moreover, their inability to anticipate all side effects and ethical and privacy concerns further complicate their use in drug development.
  • High R&D costs: The BioPharma industry is known for its substantial research and development costs. While AI has the potential to accelerate drug discovery, training, deploying, and scaling LLMs require significant financial resources. These high costs can hinder widespread adoption, particularly for smaller organizations and researchers with limited budgets.
  • Data integration and updates for complex biomedical knowledge: Biomedical knowledge is vast and constantly evolving. LLMs struggle with the complexities of integrating and updating this extensive and rapidly changing knowledge. This limitation hinders their ability to stay up-to-date with the latest research findings and medical advancements.
  • Poor reasoning: Despite their proficiency in natural language processing, LLMs often lack robust reasoning abilities. They may not grasp the underlying logic or context of the information they generate, making it challenging to draw meaningful conclusions or insights, a critical requirement in BioPharma decision-making.
  • Inconsistencies: Maintaining data consistency across diverse sources and domains is a formidable task in BioPharma. LLMs may struggle with harmonizing data from various repositories, leading to inconsistencies in AI-generated content.
  • Predominance of English language content: LLMs predominantly operate in English, which poses a limitation in a global BioPharma context. Valuable biomedical knowledge is often recorded in multiple languages, and the dominance of English language content may hinder the accessibility and utility of AI systems for non-English datasets and research findings.

How Knowledge Graphs are Connecting the Dots in BioPharma

Knowledge graphs are structured representations of knowledge that excel in organizing, connecting, and making sense of data. They consist of entities, relationships, and attributes, forming a network of interconnected information. 

Example Knowledge Graph

In BioPharma, where complex data abounds, knowledge graphs are invaluable in the following aspects: 

  • Data Organization and Integration: Knowledge graphs act as data orchestrators in the BioPharma industry, where information is scattered across numerous sources and formats. They harmonize disparate data, creating a unified knowledge repository that spans drug interactions, diseases, genes, clinical trials, and more.
  • Facilitating Data-Driven Decision-Making: Knowledge graphs provide a holistic view of the vast biomedical landscape. This, in turn, empowers researchers and decision-makers to draw insights from interconnected data, supporting more informed choices in drug discovery, treatment development, and patient care.
  • Supporting Domain-Specific Search and Query: Tailored to the nuances of the BioPharma field, knowledge graphs enable precise search and query capabilities. Researchers can swiftly and accurately extract specific information, such as drug-target interactions or disease-gene associations.

Use Cases of Knowledge Graphs in Biopharma

Knowledge graphs are changing how things work in the pharmaceutical industry. They’re making a big difference in research, development, and patient care. Let’s take a closer look at how they’re making this impact:

  • Drug-Target Interaction Networks: Knowledge graphs are pivotal in uncovering relationships between drugs and their molecular targets. By connecting data points on drug mechanisms and protein interactions, they guide researchers in developing targeted therapies.
  • Disease-Gene Associations: Mapping the intricate relationships between diseases and genes is made more accessible through knowledge graphs. These associations aid in identifying genetic factors underlying diseases and potential treatment targets.
  • Clinical Trial and Drug Approval Databases: Knowledge graphs streamline the analysis of clinical trial data and drug approval records, enabling BioPharma professionals to make data-driven decisions and simplify regulatory processes.

Combining the Strengths of Knowledge Graphs and LLMs

Harnessing the strengths of Knowledge Graphs (KGs) and Large Language Models (LLMs) presents a formidable opportunity to advance Generative AI in Biopharma.

Here’s a closer look at how this synergy can bring about transformative change:

1. Create a Biopharma-Specific Knowledge Graph

The initial approach involves creating a specialized Biopharma knowledge graph to bolster Generative AI. This knowledge graph is developed using LLMs’ natural language processing capabilities to analyze extensive text data, such as web content or journal articles. The result is a transparent knowledge graph that can be inspected, curated, and ensures explicit, deterministic answers.

2. Train LLMs with Biopharma Knowledge Graphs

The next crucial stride involves training LLMs with the Biopharma-specific knowledge graph. This equips these language models with a deep understanding of the intricate web of biomedical knowledge, enhancing their ability to generate context-aware, accurate, and relevant content. Integrating Biopharma knowledge graphs can mitigate hallucination issues, aligning generated content with domain-specific facts and reducing false or misleading outputs.

3. Enhance Query and Response Interactions

This pattern involves intercepting and improving interactions between the LLM and a Biopharma-specific knowledge graph. This process enriches responses, especially when the LLM faces complex queries, ensuring comprehensive and tailored answers. 

For instance, when the LLM struggles with queries like “Provide the most recent five drug interactions for this compound,” the knowledge graph incorporates enriched insights to help the LLM deliver comprehensive answers. 

4. Utilize Knowledge Graphs for Model Refinement

Knowledge graphs are indispensable tools for refining and optimizing generative AI models for Biopharma applications. Research by Yejen Choi at the University of Washington introduces a two-step process: an LLM is enhanced by a “critic” AI, which identifies reasoning errors and builds a knowledge graph. This knowledge graph trains a more accurate “student” model that avoids factual inaccuracies and inconsistencies.

Benefits of KG-LLM Integration in Maximizing The Potential of GAI in BioPharma 

Integrating Knowledge Graphs and Large Language Models is proving to be a game-changer in amplifying the potential of Generative AI within the BioPharma sector. Here’s how this integration is delivering significant benefits:

1. Enhancing Accessibility and Explainability

By connecting the structured knowledge of KGs with the language generation capabilities of LLMs, complex biomedical data becomes more accessible and understandable. This not only aids researchers in interpreting intricate information but also ensures the output generated by AI is explainable and can be trusted in decision-making processes.

2. Improving Cross-Collaboration

The combined power of KG and LLM fosters seamless collaboration among researchers, as it offers a common ground where domain-specific knowledge can be easily shared and built upon. This enhances the efficiency and quality of research and development efforts within the BioPharma community.

3. Natural Language Tools for Medical Research

KG-LLM integration provides natural language tools that enable users to interact with complex medical data using plain language. This simplification of data access and interaction allows medical professionals and researchers to make better-informed decisions and discoveries.

4. Accurate and Reliable Gen AI Models

KG-LLM integration supports the development of more accurate and reliable Generative AI models. The structured knowledge in KGs serves as a foundation for LLMs, reducing the risk of misinformation and enhancing the quality of content generated.

WiseCube’s Semantic Discovery Platform: Merging Knowledge Graphs and LLMs for a Generative AI Revolution in Biopharma 

Biopharma enterprises must revamp their operational capacities to match the ever-expanding biomedical data landscape to thrive in the coming years. The Biopharma sector wields enormous potential, poised to revolutionize the healthcare domain and impact the lives of countless individuals.

Artificial intelligence is at the core of this transformation, facilitating the swift identification of intricate data correlations. For Biopharma organizations aiming to streamline their research processes, leveraging Wisecube’s Semantic Discovery Platform (SDP) is the key to unlocking greater efficiency and innovation.

This platform empowers Pharma and Biotech companies to accelerate their AI-driven research and discovery, seamlessly combining large language models with knowledge graphs for enriched contextualization. The integration creates a unified resource, enabling researchers to access comprehensive insights and make informed decisions across diverse domains. Wisecube’s SDP seamlessly contextualizes data within the broader biomedical landscape, fostering deeper insights, meaningful connections, and more impactful research outcomes.

Ready to revolutionize Biopharma research? Schedule a demo with Wisecube today to learn more about the power of semantic discovery!

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